Posts Tagged ‘ Physics ’

The Control of the Natural Forces

By Frank Znidarsic

Abstract — The electrical force has a convenient range and strength. This convenient range and strength has made the electromagnetic force easy to exploit. The strong nuclear force has a range measured in Fermis. The strong nuclear force has not been harnessed with classical technology, as its range is too short. The gravitational force is very weak. This weakness has made it impossible to control the gravitational force. A dielectric medium affects the range and the strength of the electrical force. It is commonly believed that no (di-force-field) medium exists for the other forces. It is assumed that the range and strength of the nuclear and gravitational forces will converge at high energies. These energies are beyond the reach of any conceivable technology. A low energy condition may exist in which the range and the strength, of all the natural forces, are affected. This condition is that of the quantum transition. This paper presents arguments that may have exposed the path of the quantum transition. This exposure may lead to the development of technologies that convert matter into energy and technologies that provide propellant-less propulsion.

INTRODUCTION

Max Planck’s constant qualifies the angular momentum of the stationary atomic state.1 The path of the transitional quantum state has been unknown. Albert Einstein described the energy of a photon with Planck’s constant.2 Niels Bohr applied these ideas to the atomic structure. Bohr’s quantum condition states that the angular momentum carried by a stationary atomic orbit is a multiple of Planck’s constant.3

The quantization of angular momentum is a postulate, underivable from deeper law. Its validity depends on the agreement with experimental spectra. Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger extended these ideas and qualified the intensity of a spectral emission. These great scientists found that the frequency and amplitude of the emitted pho- ton is a function of the differential in energy through which the electron drops. The frequency and amplitude of a classi- cal wave is that of the emitter. The correspondence principle was invented in an attempt to explain this discrepancy. It states that the frequency and amplitude of a classical system is equivalent to the energy drop within a quantum system. These constructs form the foundation of modern physics. The structure built upon this foundation considers the clas- sical regime to be a subset of the quantum realm.

The Znidarsic constant Vt qualifies the velocity of the transitional quantum state. The transitional velocity is cou- pled with a frequency and a displacement. The energy levels of the atom are shown, in the body of this paper, to be a con- dition of the transitional frequency. The intensity of spectral emission is shown to be a function of the transitional ampli- tude. The action of the transitional quantum state replaces the principle of quantum correspondence. An extension of this work would universally swap Planck’s and Znidarsic’s constants. There would have to be a compelling reason to make this change, as it would confound the scientific com- munity. There are two good reasons for doing so. Velocity is a classical parameter. The structure built upon this founda- tion considers the quantum regime to be a subset of the clas- sical realm. Znidarsic’s constant describes the progression of an energy flow. An understanding of this progression may

lead to the development of many new technologies.

THE OBSERVABLES

Thermal energy, nuclear transmutations, and a few high energy particles have reportedly been produced during cold fusion experiments.4,5 Transmutation of heavy elements has also been reported.6 The name low energy nuclear reactions is now used to describe the process. The process was renamed to include the reported transmutation of heavy ele- ments. According to contemporary theory, heavy element transmutations can only progress at energies in the millions of electron volts. The available energy at room temperature is only a fraction of an electron volt. These experimental results do not fit within the confine of the contemporary theoretical constructs. They have been widely criticized on this basis. These experiments have produced very little, if no, radiation. The lack of high energy radiation is also a source of contention. Nuclear reactions can proceed without pro- ducing radiation under a condition where the range of the nuclear force is extended. The process of cold fusion may require a radical restructuring of the range of the natural forces. The condition of the active nuclear environment pro- vides some clues. Low energy nuclear reactions proceed in a domain of 50 nanometers.7-9 They have a positive thermal coefficient. The product of the thermal frequency and the domain size is 1 megahertz-meter. The units express a veloc- ity of one million meters per second.

The gravitational experiments of Eugene Podkletnov involved the 3 megahertz stimulation of a 1/3 of a meter superconducting disk. These experiments reportedly pro- duced a strong gravitational anomaly.10-13 The results also do not appear to fit within the contemporary scientific con- struct. They have been widely criticized. It is assumed that the generation of a strong local gravitational field violates the principle of the conservation of energy. The strength of the electrical field can be modified with the use of a dielec- tric. The existence of a gravitational di-force-field no more violates the principle of the conservation of energy than

does the existence of an electrical dielectric. The geometry of the superconducting structure provides collaborating infor- mation.14 The product of the disk size and the stimulation frequency expresses, as in the case with cold fusion, a veloc- ity of one million meters per second. This velocity may be that of the quantum transition.

Electromagnetic energy flows strongly from the parent to the daughter states during transition. This flow of energy is mediated by a strong electromagnetic interaction. It is rea- sonable to assume that the other natural forces also interact strongly during transition. The flux of the force fields flows strongly, and at range, from the parent to the daughter state. The daughter is not just a displaced parent. The rearrange- ment of the force fields gives birth to an entirely new state. This process is associated with the emission of a photon. A convergence in the motion constants uncouples the fre- quency of the emitted photon from the frequency of the emitting electron. Znidarsic’s constant, Vt, has been refined to a value of 1.094 megahertz-meters. Znidarsic’s theorem (“The Constants of the Motion tend toward those of the electromagnetic in a Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters.”) quali- fies the strong transitional interaction. All energy flows progress by way of a quantum transition. This theorem describes the process of quantum measurement.

THE GEOMETRY OF A QUANTUM EMITTER

Planck’s constant describes the energy of an emitted photon. Znidarsic’s constant describes the geometry of the emitting structure. Additional classical parameters are required in order to describe quantum phenomena in terms of the emit- ting structure. They will be briefly presented. The radius rp is that of the maximum extent of the proton. The strength of the electrical force equals the strength of the strong nuclear force at this radius. The classical radius of the electron exists at 2rp. The coulombic force produced between two electrical charges compressed to within 2rp equals 29.05 Newtons. The force produced by an amount of energy equal to the rest mass of the electron confined to within 2rp is also 29.05 Newtons. This confinement force Fmax was qualified in Equation (1).

(1)

Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity states that a force can induce a gravitational field. The gravitational field of the electron may be coupled to the outward force of its confined energy. Newton’s formula of gravity was set equal to Einstein’s formula of gravitational induction in Equation (2). The dependent variable in this relationship was the mass of the electron.

(2)

The strength of the natural forces converges at radius rp. This convergence allows energy to flow between the natural force fields. The radius rp is the classical radius of energetic accessibility.

The electrical field is usually described in terms of force and charge. This paper describes the electrical field in terms

of an elastic displacement. The elastic displacement method exposes the geometric conditions that are experienced by quantum emitters. The elastic constant of the electron K-e was derived from the classical radius of energetic accessibili-

ty. The force at this radius is Fmax. It was assumed that elas- tic constant of the electron varies inversely with displace-

ments that exist beyond rp.

(3)

The elastic energy of the electron is given in Equation (4).

(4)

The elastic constant was tested at two radii. Radius rx was set equal to the classical radius of the electron 2rp. The elas- tic energy contained by an elastic discontinuity of displace- ment of 2rp equals the rest energy of the electron. Radius rx was then set equal to the radius of the hydrogen atom. The elastic energy contained by an elastic discontinuity of dis- placement of 2rp equals the zero point kinetic energy of the ground state electron. This author has suggested that the natural force fields are pinned into the structure of matter at this discontinuity.15 The transitional quantum state removes the discontinuity and releases the fields. This brief introduc- tion describes the classical parameters associated with the emitting structures.

THE ENERGY LEVELS OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM

Maxwell’s theory predicts that accelerating electrons will continuously emit electromagnetic radiation.16 Bound elec- trons experience a constant centripetal acceleration; howev- er, they do not continuously emit energy. An atom’s elec- trons emit energy at discrete quantum intervals. The quan- tum nature of these emissions cannot be accounted for by any existing classical theory. Quantum theory assumes that the gravitational force is always weak and ignores it. This is a fundamental mistake. During transition, electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic flux quickly flows from the parent to the daughter state. This rapid flow progresses by way of a strong electromagnetic and strong gravitomagnetic interac- tion. The energy levels of the atom are established through the action of this strong interaction. The velocity of the cen- tric transitional electronic state Vt was expressed as the prod- uct of its frequency ft and wavelength.

(5)

Lengths of energetic accessibility exist at rp. The velocity of the atomic transitional states are integer multiples of this fundamental length.

(6)

A solution, Equation (7), yields the frequency of the transi- tional quantum state ft. For the isolated electron (n = 1) the frequency ft equals the Compton frequency fc of the electron.

(7)

The transitional quantum state is a Bose ensemble of stationary quantum states. The interaction of the fields within this ensemble resembles that of the electromagnetics within a superconductor. The infinite permeability of the ensemble confines the static fields. The zero permittivity of the ensem- ble expels the dynamic fields. These effects extend to the ends of the condensation. The motion constants vary direct- ly with the extent of the condensate. The frequency of the ensemble is a function of its motion constants. For a Bose condensate (n > 1) the frequency ft varies inversely with the radius of the condensate. These effects describe the di-force- field of the transitional quantum state.

The electron vibrates in simple harmonic motion. The natural frequency fn of the electron is a function of its elas- tic K-e constant and mass M-e.

(8)

The mass and the elastic constant of the electron were used to formulate the electron’s natural frequency.

(9)

The frequency of the transitional state ft was set equal to the natural frequency of the electron fn. The resultant equa- tion provided a simultaneous solution for rx.

(10)

Equation (10) was solved for rx, resulting in Equation (11).

(11)

The quantity within the brackets equals the ground state radius of the hydrogen atom. The reduction of the terms within the brackets produced Equation (12).

(12)

The result rx equals the radii of the hydrogen atom. A con- dition of energetic accessibility exists at points where the natural frequency of the electron equals the frequency of the transitional quantum state. The energy levels of the atoms exist at points of electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic accessibility.

THE INTENSITY OF SPECTRAL EMISSION

The intensity of the spectral lines was qualified by Heisenberg. He described the position of an electron with a sum of component waves. He placed these component waves into the formula of harmonic motion. Bohr’s quan- tum condition was then factored in as a special ingredient. Heisenberg found that the intensity of the spectral lines is a function of the square of the amplitude of the stationary quantum state. The great scientists knew nothing of the path of the quantum transition. Their solutions did not incorpo- rate the probability of transition. The author claims to have discovered the path of the quantum transition. This con- struct is centered upon the probability of transition. The amplitude (displacement) of vibration at the dimensional

frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters squared is proportion- ate to the probability of transition.

The transitional electron may be described in terms of its circumferential velocity. Equation (13) describes the spin of the transitional quantum state.

(13)

Angular frequency n times radius of energetic accessibility rp equals the velocity of the transitional quantum state.

(14)

Equation (14) was squared, reduced, and solved for r. Equation (15) expresses the amplitude of the transitional quantum state squared.

(15)

The transitional frequency f of the daughter state is a har- monic multiple of the transitional frequency of the parent state. The product of the transitional frequency, given by Equation (7), and the integer n was factored into Equation (16). Equation (16) expresses the transitional amplitude in terms of the product of the amplitudes of the parent and the daughter states.

(16)

The elastic constant of the electron was expressed in terms of lengths of energetic accessibility in Equation (17).

(17)

The numerator and denominator of Equation (16) were multiplied by a factor of two. The elastic constant of the electron, Equation (17), was also factored into Equation (18).

(18)

The factors within the brackets equal Planck’s constant. The reduction of the terms within the brackets produced Equation (19), Heisenberg’s formulation for the amplitude of electronic harmonic motion squared.

(19)

This formulation expresses the numerical intensity of the emitted photons. The intensity of a spectral line is a func- tion of the probability of transition. The probability of tran- sition is proportionate to the product of the transitional amplitudes of the parent and daughter states. These con- structs reform the foundation of modern physics. This refor- mation is classical. It may be possible to influence these clas- sical parameters and construct devices that directly employ all four of the natural forces. This control will lead to the development of many new technologies. The amplitude of a nuclear state is small. The amplitude of a lattice vibration is large. The product of these two amplitudes is great enough to allow a cold fusion reaction to proceed.

CONCLUSION

A low energy condition exists that affects the natural forces. This condition is dynamic. It consists of a vibrating Bose condensate. The vibration of a Bose condensate at the dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters appears to increase the strength of the phonons that bind the con- densate. This increased strength invites nuclear participa- tion. Superconductors and proton conductors can be exter- nally vibrated to harness the effect. The process is that of the quantum transition. This new understanding may allow a multi-bodied macroscopic object to be placed into a state of quantum transition. Trillions of atoms may be enjoined within a single state of quantum transition. Strong gravita- tional and long-range nuclear effects will be produced. The long-range nuclear effects may be used for the production of energy and the reduction of nuclear waste. The strong grav- itational effects may be used for propulsion.

NOMENCLATURE


REFERENCES

1.Planck, M. 1901. “On the Law of the Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum,” Annalon der Physik, 4, 553.

2.Einstein, A. 1909. “Development of Our Conception of the Nature and Constitution of Radiation,” Physikalische Zeitschrift, 22.

3.Bohr, N. 1913. “On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules,” Philosophical Magazine, 6, 26, 1-25.

4.Mosier-Boss, P., Szpak, S., Gorden, F.E., and Forsley, L.P.G. 2007. “Use of CR-39 in Pd/D Co-deposition Experiments,”

European Journal of Applied Physics, 40, 293-303.

5.Storms, E. 1995. “Cold Fusion: A Challenge to Modern Science,” Journal of Scientific Exploration, 9, 4, 585-594.

6.Miley, G.H. 1996. “Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis,” 2nd International Conference on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions.

7.Arata, Y., Fujita, H., and Zhang, Y. 2002. “Intense Deuterium Nuclear Fusion of Pycnodeuterium-Lumps Coagulated Locally within Highly Deuterated Atomic Clusters,” Proceedings of the Japan Academy, 78, B, 7.

8.Rothwell, J., at http://www.lenr-canr.org.

9.Rothwell, J. 1999. “The American Chemical Society Conference Cold Fusion Sessions,” Infinite Energy, 5, 29, 23: “50 nano-meters. . .is the magic domain that produces a detectable cold fusion reaction.”

10.Li, N. and Torr, D.G. 1992. “Gravitational Effects on the Magnetic Attenuation of Superconductors,” Physical Review B, 46, 9.

11.Podkletnov, E. and Levi, A.D. 1992. “A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu307-x Superconductor,” Physica C, 203, 441-444.

12.Reiss, H. 2002. “Anomalies Observed During the Cool- Down of High Temperature Superconductors,” Physics

Essays, 16, 2, June.

13.Tajmar, M. and deMathos, C. “Coupling of Gravitational and Electromagnetism in the Weak Field Approximation,” http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0003011.

14.Papaconstantopoulus, D.A. and Klein, B.M. 1975. “Superconductivity in Palladium-Hydrogen Systems,” Phys. Rev. Letters, July 14.

15.Znidarsic, F. 2005. “A Reconciliation of Quantum Physics and Special Relativity,” The General Journal of Physics, December, http://www.wbabin.net/science/znidarsic.pdf.

16.Maxwell, J.C. 1865. “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 155.

About the Author

Frank Znidarsic graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering in 1975. He is current- ly a Registered Professional Engineer in the state of Pennsylvania. In the 1980s, he went on to obtain an A.S in Business Administration at St. Francis College. He studied physics at the University of Indiana in the 1990s. Frank has been employed as an engineer in the steel, mining, and utility

industries. Most recently he was contracted by Alstom Power to start up power plants in North Carolina.

*Email: fznidarsic@aol.com

 

The Four Laws of Thermodynamics

The Four laws in their original state can be found at the end of this Article.
2.0 Four Thermodynamic Rules Always Obeyed
The clarification developed in the remainder of this paper obeys four ironclad rules:

2.1 Energy is conserved. Conservation of energy (the first law of thermodynamics) prohibits the efficiency of a system from exceeding 100%. Thus, the energy inputs to a working system must equal the sum of (i) the system’s useful work output and (ii) the system’s non-useful losses. Useful work output is the useful change of the form of energy. Non-useful losses are those that require work that does not produce a useful result. Obviously no system can change the form of energy that is not present and thus not available to be transduced! That is, the best a perfect, 100% efficient, system can do is to process all of its input energy into useful work with no losses whatsoever. But most real systems inevitably have some losses — even significant losses; they do not transduce 100% of the input energy into the desired new form. Thus the efficiency of any positive energy working system with losses is always less than 100%.

2.2 If no usable energy is input from the environment, the useful output of a system with any losses is less than the operator’s input, so its COP < 1.0. Nevertheless, the efficiency of such a system continues to be less than 100%.

2.3 A system can exhibit COP > 1.0 if it receives sufficient excess energy from its external environment — whether or not the operator inputs anything. Such a system’s efficiency is still less than 100% — even appreciably less. An example is the common home heat pump. Its overall efficiency is about 50%, and it wastes about half of the total input energy (supplied by the operator and the environment) in losses. However, the heat pump receives so much excess heat energy from the environment that it still outputs substantially more useful work than the input that the operator furnished. Indeed, even though a heat pump has an efficiency of ε = 50%, its nominal COP = 3.0 to 4.0.

2.4 A working system can exhibit COP = ∞ if it freely receives all its energy input from the environment and none from the operator. This is true even though the efficiency (the proportion of the total energy input that is usefully transduced) is always less than 100% and indeed may be quite low. A solar cell array power system, e.g., usually has an efficiency of only about ε = 20%. However, the operator input is zero and all the energy is input freely by the environment, so the system COP = ∞.

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.This statement implies that thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation on the set of thermodynamic systems under consideration. Systems are said to be in equilibrium if the small, random exchanges between them (eg. Brownian motion) do not lead to a net change in energy. This law is tacitly assumed in every measurement of temperature. Thus, if one seeks to decide if two bodies are at the same temperature, it is not necessary to bring them into contact and measure any changes of their observable properties in time.[19]The law provides a fundamental definition of temperature and justification for the construction of practical thermometers.It is interesting to note that the zeroth law was not initially recognized as a law. The need to for the zeroth law was not initially realized, so the first, second, and third laws were explicitly stated and found common acceptance in the physics community first. Once the importance of the zeroth law was realized, it was impracticable to renumber the other laws, hence the zeroth. 
  • First law of thermodynamics: The internal energy of an isolated system is constant.The first law of thermodynamics is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy. It states that energy can be transformed (changed from one form to another), but cannot be created or destroyed.[20]The first law is usually formulated by saying that the change in the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the difference between the of heat supplied to the system and the amount of work done by the system on its surroundings. It is important to note that internal energy is a state of the system (see Thermodynamic state) whereas heat and work modify the state of the system. In other words, a specific internal energy of a system may be achieved by any combination of heat and work; the manner by which a system achieves a specific internal energy is path independent. 
  • Second law of thermodynamics: Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location.The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of decay observable in nature. The second law is an observation of the fact that over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical potential tend to even out in a physical system that is isolated from the outside world. Entropy is a measure of how much this evening-out process has progressed. The entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.In classical thermodynamics, the second law is a basic postulate applicable to any system involving heat energy transfer; in statistical thermodynamics, the second law is a consequence of the assumed randomness of molecular chaos. There are many versions of the second law, but they all have the same effect, which is to explain the phenomenon of irreversibility in nature. 
  • Third law of thermodynamics: As a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value.The third law of thermodynamics is a statistical law of nature regarding entropy and the impossibility of reaching absolute zero of temperature. This law provides an absolute reference point for the determination of entropy. The entropy determined relative to this point is the absolute entropy. Alternate definitions are, “the entropy of all systems and of all states of a system is smallest at absolute zero,” or equivalently “it is impossible to reach the absolute zero of temperature by any finite number of processes”.Absolute zero, at which all activity would stop if it were possible to happen, is -273.15 °C (degrees Celsius), or -459.67 °F (degrees Fahrenheit) or 0 K (kelvin).