The 4022 Chip

The ‘4022’ Chip
One very useful CMOS integrated circuit is the ‘4022’ chip which is a 16-pin ‘divide by 8’ chip with built-in decoding.   The connections are:

If pin 14 is provided with the output from some variety of astable multivibrator, on the first pulse, this chip sets the “0” output on pin 2 to High while the other outputs are Low.   On the next pulse, the “0” output goes Low and the “1” output on pin 1 goes High.   On the next pulse, output “1” goes Low and the “2” output on pin 3, goes High.   And so on until on the eighth pulse, output “7” on pin 10 goes Low and output “0” goes high again.

The chip can also divide by lower numbers:

For ‘Divide by 7’ operation, connect pin 10 to pin 15 (this resets the output to ‘0’)
For ‘Divide by 6’ operation, connect pin 5 to pin 15
For ‘Divide by 5’ operation, connect pin 4 to pin 15
For ‘Divide by 4’ operation, connect pin 11 to pin 15
For ‘Divide by 3’ operation, connect pin 7 to pin 15
For ‘Divide by 2’ operation, connect pin 3 to pin 15

If you want a ‘Divide by 1’ circuit, I suggest you cut down on the amount of alcohol you drink.

Here is an illustration of a ‘Divide by 4’ setup:

There are a number of things to notice in the above diagram.   Firstly, the practical arrangements for circuitry have not been stressed before.   If the circuitry has a pulsing circuit drawing heavy current, as shown by the thick red arrows, then it should be physically connected to the battery and any low-current circuitry should be further away from the battery.   The supply from the battery should have a fuse or circuit breaker and a switch in the line before anything else is connected, so that if any component develops a fault and goes short-circuit, the fuse will blow and prevent any significant problems.

Secondly, it is a good idea to provide the other circuitry with a smoothed power supply as shown by the blue components in the diagram.   This minimises the effect if the battery voltage gets pulled down by the pulsing of the high-current circuitry.   The diode (silicon, 1 Amp, 50 V) stops the heavy current circuit drawing current from the large smoothing capacitor.   The 100 ohm resistor limits the current into the large capacitor on switch-on and provides a little more smoothing.   This circuitry is called “de-coupling” as it de-couples the low current circuitry from the high current circuitry.

Thirdly, notice capacitor “C1” which is wired physically as close to the power supply pins of the integrated circuit as is possible.   If a spike is superimposed on the battery supply, then this capacitor soaks it up and prevents it damaging or triggering the integrated circuit.   A spike could be caused by a very strong magnetic pulse nearby as that can induce an extra voltage in the battery wires.

The lower part of the diagram shows the output voltages produced as the clock pulses reach pin 14 of the chip.   The positive-going part of the clock signal triggers the change in state of the outputs.   If necessary, a positive-going pulse on the reset pin, pin 15, causes output “0” to go high and the other outputs to go low.

Now, to take this output sequencing a little further. For example, the Charles Flynn magnet motor shown in Chapter 1 needs coils to be powered up, one after the other and only one should be on at any one time. This calls for a circuit which has a large number of outputs. The CD4022BC chip gives up to eight outputs one after the other. The CD4017B chip gives up to ten outputs one after the other but there is no need to be limited by these numbers as more than one chip can be used. If you find this section difficult to understand, then just skip past to the next section as it is not important for you to understand these larger circuits.

The pin connections for the divide-by-ten CD4017B chip is shown here:

While this shows outputs 1 to 10, the manufacturers and some people who draw circuits, prefer to label the outputs as “0 to 9” which correspond to digital displays. In our style of operation, it is easier to think of the ten outputs as being from 1 to 10.

You will notice that there are two pin labels which we have not come across before, namely, the “Carry-out” pin and the “Clock Enable” pin. These allow us to use several of these chips in a row to give a much larger “divide-by” number. The “Clock Enable” pin can be used to block the clock input. The operation is like this:

In this example, the sequence is started by the Reset pin being given a high voltage as shown by the green shading. This pushes the output pin 1 to a high voltage and all of the other outputs to a low voltage and holds those voltages as long as the reset voltage is high.

When the Reset voltage drops, the next rising edge of the clock pulse (marked “1” in the diagram) causes the output 1 to go low and output 2 to go high. Each of the successive clock pulses “2” to “9” moves the high voltage steadily along the outputs until output pin 10 is high.

The next clock pulse rising edge (marked “10” in the diagram) starts the sequence again with output 10 going low and output 1 going high again. If nothing changes, then that sequence of output voltage changes will continue indefinitely.

However, in the diagram above, the Clock Enable pin voltage is driven high on clock pulse “11”. Output 2 has just gone high and would have gone low when the rising edge of clock pulse “12” occured, but in this case, the Clock Enable feature blocks the clock pulse and prevents it reaching the rest of the circuitry. This causes the output 2 voltage to stay high as long as the Clock Enable remains high. In this example, the Clock Enable voltage stays high for just one clock pulse, causing the output 2 voltage to be high for twice it’s usual length, and then the sequence continues as before.

Here is one way to get a large “divide-by” number. This example is divide-by-25 because there is only one ‘intermediate stage’ but there can be any number and each additional one adds another eight outputs to the total:

At startup, output 10 of the first stage (which is physical pin 11 of the chip) is at a low voltage. This holds the Clock Enable (pin 13) low, allowing the clock pulses to enter the first stage. Because the output 10 voltage is low, one input to the first AND gate is held low, preventing it from letting the clock pulse flow through it, i.e. the “gate” is closed to through traffic.

The first stage chip then operates as normal, producing outputs 1 to 9 in order as you would expect. The next clock pulse stes the first stage output 10 high, allowing the clock pulses through the first AND gate and holding the Clock Enable (pin 13) high, which in turn locks the output 10 high, dropping the first stage chip out of the operation.

As the output 1 of the first stage is connected to the Reset (pin 15) of the second chip, it will have been cleared and it’s output 1 set high, which in turn Resets the third chip and closes the second AND gate. So, when the first pulse gets through to the second chip, it pushes it from state 1 to state 2 where the output 2 goes high. For that reason, output 1 of the second chip is not one of the outputs which can be used by whatever following circuitry you choose to connect to this system. Consequently, only eight of the ten outputs of the second chip are available as counter outputs. That is, outputs 1 and 10 are taken up in passing the switching sequence between the various chips in the chain.

The same applies to all following chips in the chain, each extra chip adding up to eight extra sequential outputs. On the final stage chip, if you connect the red Reset wire (which goes back to fire up the first chip again) to output 9 instead of output 10 of the final chip, then you get a divide-by-24 result.

If the Reset is taken from output 8 of the final chip, then you get a divide-by-23 result, and so on. Using this method, you can have a divide-by circuit for any number you want. These chips are very popular and so their cost is low, amking the entire circuit cheap to make. The pin connections for the AND gates is shown here:

The PIC Revolution. Over the years, there have been advances in the way that circuitry can be put together, prototypes built and tested. Initially, “valves” or “vacuum tubes” were used and circuits required a good deal of electrical power in order to operate. Mechanical vibrators or “reeds” were used to generate the switching needed to convert DC into AC. Then the transistor became widely available and the transistor replaced the mechanical vibrator reed, the circuit being called an “astable multivibrator” and comprising of two transistors wired back to back (as described in chapter 12). Then came the digital integrated circuit with it’s “NOR gates” which could also be wired back to back to make a multivibrator. This was done so often that a special integrated circuit called the “555 chip” was designed to do the job all on its own. That chip has been a tremendous success and is now found in all sorts of different circuits, being very easy to use, very robust and very cheap. Surprisingly, the dominant position of the “555” chip is being challenged by a completely different type of chip, one which is essentially, a computer on a single chip, and which is called a “PIC controller”.

This new type of chip is not expensive, is easy to use, and can be changed to perform a different task in just a few seconds. It can perform timing tasks. It can act as a multivibrator. It can act as a “Divide-by-N” chip. It is a very impressive chip which is very useful. The reason that I mention it here is because it is at the heart of the fastest working Tesla Switch research forum around (the “energetic forum” group). The chip is something you need to know about as it will certainly take over more and more circuit applications in the coming years.

There is a whole family of these processor chips, but I will select just one for this description, and that will be the one being used by the “energetic forum” members, and I have to thank Jeff Wilson for his help in describing this circuitry, the programming and the methods which he uses.

First, however, some information on this new design of chip and the methods used with it. The one used by Jeff is called the “PICAXE-18X” and it looks like the chip shown here. From which you can see, it looks just like any other chip, although with eighteen pins. The powerful performance comes from the way that it operates. You are probably familiar with the “555” chip and understand that it operates by changing the voltage on just one of it’s pins (pin 3) the output pin, from a low voltage to a high voltage. The PIC chip can do that as well, but even better still, it has more than one output pin and it can alter the voltage on any of those pins to either a high or a low voltage and it can do that in any order and with any timing that you choose. This makes it a very versatile chip indeed and one which is very well suited to be the central controller for a Tesla Switch test environment.

The chip is used by wiring it into a circuit in the same sort of way that a 555 chip would be used, except that the PIC has it’s own internal timing clock and can operate in intervals of one thousandth of a second, that is, one millisecond.

The top eight pins are for making the chip work. The next two are for providing the chip with electrical power. The bottom eight pins are separate outputs, any one of which can operate switches, timers, etc., just as the output from a 555 chip can. Having been named by computer people, instead of the eight output pins being numbered from 1 to 8 as any rational person would do, they have numbered them from 0 to 7.

The voltage on those output pins will be either High or Low. PIC switching can be used with a wide range of different free-energy designs. The PIC chip is generally supplied with a socket, a connecting cable and a program for feeding instructions into the chip. The feed is generally from an ordinary PC. The programming instructions are very simple and anyone can learn how to use them in just a few minutes.

So let’s look at a circuit which has been used by Jeff when he tests prototype circuitry. The first part of the circuit is for connecting the standard PC socket to the PIC chip and it looks like this:

A standard 9-pin computer socket has it’s pin 2 connected to the PIC’s pin 2, pin 3 connected to the PIC’s pin 3 via a 10K / 22K voltage divider resistor pair (which lowers the incoming signal voltage), and pin 5 is connected to the PIC’s pin 5. That is all that’s needed to feed information into the PIC chip.

The chip is supplied from a 12-volt battery but as it needs a 5-volt supply, the 100 / 150 ohm (2 watt) resistor pair is used to drop the 12 volts down to about 7 volts and then the 5.1-volt zener diode clamps the voltage at 5.1 volts, which is just what the chip needs. The tiny 10 nF (0.01 microfarad) capacitor is there to trap any voltage spikes should any be picked up from some outside influence. Finally, the press-button switch used to short between pins 4 and 5 is used to wipe out the program inside the PIC, ready for a new program to be loaded.

The actual programming is not difficult and the feed into the chip is handled by the program supplied with the chip and which is run on your home computer. Let’s take an example. Suppose we want the output on pin 10 to act as a clock signal. The people who made the chip expect that pin to be called “Output 4” in the program. Please don’t ask me why it isn’t called “10” in the program as I have no answer for you other than “it takes all sorts of people to make a world”.

All right, suppose we want to produce an output signal like a 555 chip running at 50 Hz. We choose one of our output pins, say, the physical pin 10, that being the bottom right hand pin on the chip. As you can see from the pin diagram of the chip shown above, pin 10 is called “Output 4” in a set of commands, or just “4” to save typing. The program might be:

    high 4
pause 10
low 4
pause 10
goto Main:

Wow – really difficult stuff !! Only a genius could manage to program! Well, we’ll see if we can struggle along with this “difficult” stuff.

The “Main:” at the start is a “label” which can be jumped to and that is done by the “goto Main” command which sends the chip back to repeat the commands in the loop indefinitely (or until the chip is powered down).

The second line “high 4” tells the chip to put the maximum possible voltage on the “Output 4” which is the physical pin 10 of the chip. The chip does this immediately, with no time delay.

If we want the output to give a 50 Hz output signal, then the voltage on our chosen output pin will have to go high, pause, go low, pause and go high again, 50 times each second. As there are 1,000 milliseconds in one second, and the chip’s clock runs with 1 millisecond ticks, then we need our complete cycle of “up, pause, down, pause” to happen 50 times in those 1,000 clock ticks. That is, once every 20 ticks, so each delay will be 10 clock ticks long.

The third line “pause 10” tells the chip to sit on it’s hands and do nothing for the next 10 ticks of it’s internal clock (which ticks 1,000 times per second).

The fourth line “low 4” tells the chip to lower the output voltage on it’s “Output 4” (pin 10 in real life) to it’s minimum value.

The fifth line “pause 10” tells the chip to wait for 10 milliseconds before doing anything else.

The last line “goto Main:” tells the computer to go back to the label “Main:” and continue with whatever instructions follow that label. This puts the chip into an ‘infinite loop’ which will make it generate that output waveform continuously. The output will look like this:

This gives an even waveform, that is, one with a Mark/Space ratio of 50:50 or a Duty Cycle of 50%. If we want the same rate of pulsing but a Duty Cycle of just 25% then the program would be:

    high 4
pause 5
low 4
pause 15
goto Main:

which produces this waveform:

If you wanted “Output 7” (physical pin 13) to do the reverse of this at the same time – that is, when Output 4 goes high we want Output 7 to go low, and vice versa, then, for a 20% Duty Cycle the program would be:

    high 4
low 7
pause 4
high 7
low 4
pause 16
goto Main:

These output voltages are then used in exactly the same way as the output voltages on pin 3 of a 555 chip, or any of the outputs of NAND gates, Hall-effect sensor chips, Schmitt triggers, or whatever. If the device to be powered requires very little current, then the easiest method is to connect the load directly to the output pin.

If, as is most often the case, the device to be powered needs a large current to make it work, then the output voltage is used to power a transistor, perhaps like this:

Here, the resistor “R1” limits the current fed into the base of the transistor when pin 10 goes high, but allowing enough current for the transistor to switch on fully, powering the load. The resistor “R” makes sure that the transistor switches off fully when the output on pin 10 goes low. The circuit as shown restricts the load to some piece of equipment which can operate on just five volts, so an alternative circuit could be:

This allows whatever voltage the load needs to be applied to the load, while the PIC chip remains running on it’s normal 5-volt supply. However, the equipment to be powered may not be able to have a common zero voltage connection with the PIC. To deal with this, an optical isolation chip can be used like this:

Here a high output voltage on pin 10 of the PIC chip lights up the LED inside the opto-isolator chip, causing a major drop in the resistance between the other two pins. This causes a current controlled by the resistor “R” to be fed into the base of the transistor, switching it on and powering the load.

Electronics Tutorial

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